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Agricultural Synthesis

The solvent properties of DMSO make it a useful media in the synthesis of many agricultural chemicals. These include some specific nitrophenylether compounds and a range of azole antifungals.



Nitrophenylethers provide post-emergent control of broadleaf weeds. Dinitrophenyl ether herbicides such as acifluorfen (Blazer®) and lactofen (Cobra®) are synthesized via the nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction between phenol and aromatic halide substrates. DMSO offers rate advantages in these reactions.

agricultural synthesis: herbicides

Leading Reference: Kingsbury, C.A J. Org. Chem. 29 3262-3270 (1964) Visit our Learning Center to learn more about the benefits of using DMSO in the SNAr Reaction, from Gaylord Chemical Company L.L.C.’s exclusive Comparative Reaction Solvent Program.


Azoles: fungicide / fungistat. Azoles are substituted imidazoles that exhibit fungistatic activity at very low levels and are fungicidal at micromolar levels. Common fungicides used in agricultural and medicinal applications include itraconazole, tetraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole.

agricultural synthesis: antifungals


Bis-(trichloromethyl)sulfone: broad-spectrum biocide. Bis(trichloromethyl) sulfone is a broad-spectrum biocide, which is particularly effective against algae and fungi. Typical applications include the pulp and paper industry where it is approved for use as a slimicide in process water and as a material preservative. It is also used in cooling water systems, secondary oil recovery injection water systems and adhesives.

agricultural synthesis: biocides

Reference: Toxicological Effects of Biocide Slimicide C-30 on Some Marine Invertebrates, C.J. Lucu, et. al., Mar. Pollut. Bull., 11(10), 294-296 (1980).Dimethyl Sulfide has been used in its sulfonium salt form, as a counterion in agrochemical products.


Sulphosate is the the trimethylsulphonium salt of glyphosate, the most successful, post-emergent systemic broad spectrum herbicide for control of annual and perennial weeds. The sulphosate salt is synthesized by reacting glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)g lycine) with the sulphonium salt derived from Dimethyl Sulfide. Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) is one of the products produced by Gaylord Chemical.

agricultural synthesis: suphosate

Beyond its use as a reaction media to manufacture agrichemical actives, DMSO is also used as a formulation solvent for agrichemicals. In this role DMSO acts to stabilize the formulation and increase loading levels of poorly-soluble actives.

Visit our Learning Center to learn more about the benefits of using DMSO in the SnAr Reaction, from Gaylord Chemical’s exclusive Comparative Reaction Solvent Program.

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