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DMSO Solubility Data

Introduction

Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), one of the strongest organic solvents, has been used commercially for several decades. It is an effective solvent for a wide array of organic materials, including many polymers. DMSO also dissolves many inorganic salts, particularly transition metals nitrates, cyanides and dichromates. DMSO is miscible with water and most organic liquids.

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The contents of this page summarizes solubility characteristics for DMSO.

Contents

1. Organics
2. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
3. Resins and Polymers
4. Inorganics
5. Gases
6. Pharmaceutical Excipient Solubility Data
7. DMSO Gel Preparation Data

Data related to the solvent properties of DMSO are given in tables on the following pages:

8. Relative Hansen Solubility Parameter Data
9. Suggested DMSO Formulations for Industrial Solvent Replacement
10. Hansen Solubility Parameter Data for Selected Polymers
11. Solubility of Selected Polymers in DMSO / Tetralin mixtures
12. Solubility of Selected Polymers in DMSO / MIBK mixtures


Table 1

Solubility of Organic Materials in DMSO

Material Grams/100cc DMSO @ 20 – 30°C Grams/100cc DMSO @ 90 – 100°C Material Grams/100cc DMSO @ 20 – 30°C Grams/100cc DMSO @ 90 – 100°C
Acetic Acid Miscible   4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid 24  
Acetone Miscible   Hy-Wax 120   <1
Acrawax <1 >1 Imidazole 80  
Acrawax B Insoluble 4 Isophthalic acid 68 76
Aniline Miscible   Isoprene Miscible  
Anthracene 2   Kerosene 0.5  
Beeswax   <1 Lanolin, hydrous   11 (gets cold)
Benzene Miscible   Lauryl amide 10 >20
Benzidine Sol   Lorol 5 Miscible  
Benzidine methane sulfonate Insoluble   Lubricating oil 0.4  
Bromoethane Miscible   Methionine 0.1 0.3
Butenes 2.1   Methyl borate Miscible  
n-Butyl acetate Miscible   Methyl caprate   Miscible
Butyl carbitol Miscible   Methyl iodide Miscible Reacts
Calcium methyl sulfonate Soluble   Methyl isobutyl ketone Miscible  
Camphor Soluble Soluble Methyl laurate 7 Miscible
Candelilla wax   <1 Methyl mercaptan 40 (Reacts)  
Carbon Insoluble   n-methyl morpholine Miscible  
Carbon disulfide 90   Methyl palmitate Immiscible Misc. 130-180°C
Carbon tetrachloride Miscible   Methyl salicylate Miscible  
Carbowax 600 Miscible   Methyl sulfonic acid Miscible  
Carbowax 6000 Insoluble 8 Methylene chloride Miscible  
Carnauba wax   <1 Microcrystalline wax   <1
Castor oil Miscible <1 Morpholine Miscible  
Ceresin wax   <1 Naphthalene 40 m
Chloroform Miscible   Neoprene Insoluble Insoluble
Chlorosulfonic acid Reacts   Nitrobenzene Miscible  
Citric acid >70   Oleic acid Miscible  
Coconut oil (Mis.@160°C) 0.3 1.3 Ouricuri wax   1
Cresylic acid Miscible   Oxalic acid 38  
Cumene Miscible   Palmitic acid 100  
Cyclohexane 4.67   Paraffin Insoluble  
Cyclohexene Miscible   Paraformaldehyde Insoluble Slightly soluble
Cyclohexylamine Miscible   Paradichlorobenzen 56  
Decalin 4.5   Pentaerythritol 5-10 30
n-Decane 0.7   n-Pentane 0.35  
Di-n-butylamine 11   Pentene 1 & 2 7.1  
o-Dichlorobenzene Miscible   Perchloric acid Reacts violently  
p-Dichlorobenzene Very Soluble   Petroleum ether 3  
S-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane 4 100 Phenol >100  
Dicyandiamide 40   Phosphoric acid Miscible  
Dicyclohexylamine 4.5   Phosphorus trichloride Reacts vigorously  
Diethanolamine Miscible   Phthalic acid 90  
Diethylamine Miscible   Picric acid Soluble  
Diethy lether Miscible   Pyridine Miscible  
bis-(2-ethylhexyl) amine 0.7   Pyrogallol 50  
Diethyl sulfide Miscible   Rosin >100  
Di-isobutyl carbinol Miscible   Rosin soap Slightly soluble 0.9
Di-isobutylene 3.3   Sevin 50  
Disopropyle ether 11   Silicon tetrachloride Reacts vigorously  
Dimethyl ether 4.4   Sorbitan sesquioleate 2.5  
Dimethyl formamide Miscible   Sorbitan trioleate Miscible  
Dimethyl sulfide Miscible   Sorbitol 60 >180
Dimethyl sulfone 33.9 Miscible Soybean oil 0.6  
Dioxane Miscible   Succinic acid 30  
Diphenyl Very Soluble   Sugar (sucrose) 30 100
Dipentene 10   Sulfamic acid 40  
Dodecanol >100   Sulfuric acid Miscible  
n-Dodecane 0.38   Tallow Insoluble 1.9
Dodecylbenzene 3.5   Tallow amide, hydrogenated Insoluble >40
Dye – Burnt Sugar Soluble   Terephthalic acid 26 33
Dye – FD&C Blue Soluble   Tetra hydrophthalic anydride 50  
Dye – Pistachio Green B Soluble   Tetralin Miscible  
1-Eicosanol Insoluble   Tetrapropylene 1  
Ethyl benzoate Miscible   Thiourea 40 85
Ethyl alchohol Miscible   Toluene Miscible  
Ethyl bromide Miscible Reacts Toluene diisocyanate Miscible  
Ethyl ether Miscible   Tributylamine 0.9  
Ethylene dichloride Miscible   Tricresyl phosphate Miscible  
Formalin (37%) Miscible   Triethanolamine lauryl sulfate Soluble  
Formamide Miscible   Triethanolamine Miscible  
Formic acid Miscible   Triethylamine 10  
Glucose 54   Trinitrotoluene Soluble  
Glycerine Miscible   Turpentine 10  
Glycine <0.05 0.1 Urea 40 110
Hexane 2.9   Xylene Miscible  

Table 2

Solubility of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in DMSO

Pharmaceutical Nomenclature CAS
Number
Solubility g/100ml DMSO@25°C Solubility
g/100g DMSO@25°C
Solubility g/100ml Solution@25°C
Acetominophen 103-90-2 84.3 77 43.5
Acetyl-D-Blucosamine 10036-64-3 4.9 4.5 4.3
Acyclovir USP 59277-89-3 15.4 14 12.3
Albuterol sulfate   0.6 0.5 0.5
Aloe Vera Powder Freeze Dried 200:1   20.4 18.6 15.7
Amitriptyline hydrochloride USP 549-18-8 25.4 23.2 18.8
Amphotericin B USP (Oral grade) 1397-89-3 0 0 0
Androstendione 63-05-8 5.5 5 4.8
Baclofen 1134-47-0 0 0 0
Beclomethasone dipropionate USP 1134-47-0 38.5 35.1 26
Beta-glucan (1,3) FG   0 0 0
Betamethasone dipropionate USP 5593-20-4 89.6 81.8 45
Biotin (D) USP (Vitamin H) 58-85-5 23.4 21.4 17.6
Budesonide 51333-22-3 49.9 45.6 31.3
Bupivacaine hydrochloride USP 18010-40-7 11.6 10.6 9.6
Capsaicin synthetic 2444-46-4 19.3 17.6 15
Capsicum oleoresin USP (Liquid) 8023-77-6 25.7 23.5 19
Carbamazepine USP 298-46-4 6.9 6.3 5.9
Cephalexin USP 15686-71-2 0 0 0
Chloroquine diphosphate 50-63-5 0 0 0
Chondroitin sulfate 9007-28-7 0 0 0
Clindamycin phosphate 24729-96-2 22.4 20.5 17
Clobestasol propionate USP 25122-46-7 40.5 37 27
Clonidine hydrochloride USP   5.6 5.1 4.8
Clotrimazole USP 23593-75-1 5.4 4.9 0.7
Colchicine USP 64-86-8 42.6 38.9 28
Cyclobenzaprine USP   10.2 9.3 8.5
Cyclosporin (A) USP 59865-13-3 46.1 42 29.6
Deoxy-D-glucose (2) 154-17-6 19 17.4 14.8
Dexamethasone USP 50-02-2 60.6 55.3 35.6
Dextromethorphin   70.9 64.7 39.3
Dichlofenac sodium   54.7 49.9 33.3
Dihydroepiandrosterone 53-43-0 61.2 55.8 35.8
Diiodohydroxyquin (Iodoquinol) USP 83-73-8 9.9 9 8.3
Dimercatopropanesulfonic acid Na salt (2,3) 4076-02-2 92.6 84.5 45.8
Dimercaptosuccinic acid   91.8 93.8 45.6
Edetate disodium USP 6381-92-6 9.3 0.5 7.8
Ergoloid mesylate USP 8067-24-1 0 0 0
Erythromycin USP 114-07-8 21.6 19.7 16.5
Estradiol USP (E2) 50-28-2 100.3 91.6 47.8
Estradiol cypionate USP 313-06-4 90.7 82.8 45.3
Estradiol valerate USP 979-32-8 97.1 88.7 47
Estriol USP (E3) 50-27-1 0 0 0
Estrone USP (E1) 53-16-7 7.9 7.2 6.7
Fluorouracil-(5 FU) USP 51-21-8 17.3 15.8 13.7
Blucosamine hydrochloride (D) 66-84-2 9.5 8.7 8
Guaifenesin USP 93-14-1 131.2 119.8 54.5
Haloperidol USP 52-86-8 0 0 0
Hydrocortisone acetate USP 50-03-3 24.5 22.4 18.3
Ketamine hydrocortisone USP 50-23-7 39.3 35.9 26.4
Hydroxyprogesteroone caproate 630-56-8 11.6 10.6 9.6
Ibuprofen USP 15687-27-1 412.1 376.2 79
Indomethacin USP 53-86-1 119.2 108.8 52.1
Intraconazole 84625-61-6 0 0 0
HC1 USP CIII 1867-66-9 4 3.6 3.5
Ketoconazole USP 65277-42-1 3.4 3.1 3.1
Ketoprofen 22071-15-4 54.2 49.5 33.1
Levamisole HC1 USP (Vet use) 16595-80-5 5.2 4.7 4.5
Lidocaine USP 137-58-6 163 148.8 59.8
Lipoic acid, DL-alpha (DL-Thiotic acid) 1077-28-7 311.8 284.6 74
Loperamide Hydrochloride USP 34552-83-5 7.2 6.5 6
Lorazepam USP 846-49-1 10.8 9.9 9
Manganese chloride tetrahydrate USP 13446-34-9 0 0 0
Mebendazole 31431-39-7 6.3 5.7 5
Medroxypregesterone acetate 71-58-9 2.2 2 2
Megestrol acetate USP 595-33-5 4.3 4 3.8
Methimazole USP 60-56-0 93.7 85.5 6.1
Methotrexate USP 59-05-2 20.2 18.5 15.6
Metronidizole   8.6 7.9 7.3
Miconazole b ase USP 22916-47-8 37.5 34.2 25.5
Naproxen USP 22204-53-1 37.7 34.4 25.6
Niacinadmide USP 98-92-0 7.9 7.2 6.7
Nifedipine USP 21827-25-4 47.8 43.7 30.4
Nystatin USP 1400-61-9 7.6 6.9 6.5
Panthenol   15.2 13.9 12.2
Pentoxifylline 6493-05-6 36.1 32.9 24.8
Phenytoin USP (Diphenyl Hydantoin)   94.8 86.6 46.4
Piroxicam USP 36322-90-4 5.8 5.3 5
Prednisolone 50-24-8 23.2 21.2 17.5
Prednisolone USP 53-03-2 42.8 39.1 28.1
Pregnenolone 145-13-1 2.4 2.2 2.2
Prochlorperazine dimaleate   7.6 7 6.5
Progesterone USP 57-83-0 4.4 4.1 3.9
Promethazine hydrochloride USP 58-33-3 24.9 22.7 18.5
Propanolol hydrochloride 318-98-9 53.5 48.8 32.8
Pyracetam 7491-74-9 22.1 20.2 16.8
Riboflavin-5-phosphate sodium USP 130-40-5 0 0 0
Rifampin USP 13292-46-1 20.6 18.8 15.8
Silver sulfadiazine USP 22199-08-2 0 0 0
Tamoxifen citrate USP 54965-24-1 10.8 9.9 9
Terazosin hydrochloride dihydrate 70024-40-7 10.6 9.6 8.8
Testosterone   30.2 27.6 21.6
Tetracaine USP 94-24-6 369.9 337.6 77.2
Tetracycline USP 6-54-8 19 17.4 14.8
Thiabendazole USP 148-79-8 10.8 9.9 9
Thymol iodide purified 552-22-7 3 2.8 2.7
Tranilast 53902-12-8 41.1 37.6 27.3
Triamcynilone IU/ml   17.2 15.7 13.6
Urea USP 57-13-6 45.2 41.2 29.2
Vancomycin hydrochloride   11.5 10.5 9.5
Verapamil hydrochloride USP 152-11-4 19.5 17.8 15.1
Vitamin A palmitate (18,000 U/mL) 79-81-2 11.9 10.9 9.8
Vitamin B12 USP (Cyanacobalamin) 68-19-9 0 0 0
Vitamin D3 (2400 IU/mL) 67-97-0 0 0 0
Vitamin E 10191-41-0 0 0 0
Yohimbine hydrochloride 65-19-0 0 0 0
Zinc phyrithione (48% Min. Aq. Dis.) 13463-41-7 0 0 0

Table 3

Solubility of Resins and Polymers in DMSO

Material Manufacturer Grams/100cc DMSO Comments
25°C 90 – 100°C
Aminoplasts        
Melamine formol   Soluble    
Urea formol   Soluble    
Polyacrylics        
Orlon®     20 Viscous solution
Acrilan®   >25    
Creslan   5    
Polyamides        
Nylon 6     Insoluble 40@130°C
Nylon 6,6     Insoluble 25@150°C
Nylon 6, 10     Insoluble 40@150°C
Nylon 11     Insoluble  
Nylon 12     Insoluble Soluble@140°C
Polyimides        
Torlon® 4203L Solvay   Insoluble  
Ultem™100 Sabic Swells    
Cellulose        
Cellulose triacetate   10 20  
Viscose rayon     <1  
Cellophane     Insoluble  
Carboxymethyl cellulose     Insoluble  
Nitrocellulose     10  
Elastomers        
Kalrez® 4079 Dupont Insoluble    
Teflon Dupont Insoluble Insoluble  
Epoxies        
Epon® 1001 Hexion 50    
Epon® 1004 Hexion 50    
Epon® 1007 Hexion 50    
Fluorinated Resins        
Polyvinylidene floride   Swells    
Methacrylates        
Lucite® 41,45 LuciteLux <1    
Plexiglas   <1    
Polycarbonates        
Lexan™ Sabic >5    
Polyesters        
Dacron® Invista   >1 Dissolves@160°C;ppts@130°C
Atlac® Aliancys   50  
Silicones        
Z-6018 Dow Corning 70    
803 soln. Dow Corning Miscible    
805-soln. Dow Corning Miscible    
Sylkyd 50 Dow Corning Miscible    
Sulfur Resins        
Udel® Solvay Soluble    
Urethanes        
Vithane Dow   100  
Vinyl polymers/copolymers         
Butvar® B-76 Eastman   20 Very viscious
Elvanol® 51-05 Dupont   90 Very viscious
Elvanol® 52-22 Dupont   15 Viscous
Elvanol® 71-24 Dupont   30 Viscous
Polyvinylpyrrolidone   30 >100  
Geon™ 101 (PVC) Polyone   10  
Vinylite WHH   2 30  
Vinylidenes        
Darvan   5   Soln. cloudy and viscous
Sara film     30  
Geon 200 x 20     20  
DNA   >5   25 @130°C
Other Resinous Materials        
Melmac 405   70    
Neoprene   Insoluble    
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)   Insoluble    
Polyethylene   Insoluble    
Polypropylene   Insoluble    
Polystyrene       Sol. @150°C; ppts @130°C
Rosin   >100    
Penton chlorinated polyether     5  
Vinsol   50 >100  

Table 4

Solubility of Inorganic Materials in DMSO

 Material Grams/100cc DMSO @ 25°C Grams/100cc DMSO @        90 – 100°C  Material Grams/100cc DMSO @ 25°C Grams/100cc DMSO @       90 – 100°C
Aluminum sulfate (18H₂O) Insoluble 5 Mercuric bromide 90  
Ammonimum carbonate (H₂O) 1   Mercuric iodide 100  
Ammonium borate (3H₂O) 10   Mercuric sulfate <0.01  
Ammonium chloride Insoluble 10 Molybdenum bromide 1  
Ammonium chromate     Nickel chloride (6H₂o) 60  
Ammonium dichromate 50   Nickel nitrate (6H₂O) 60  
Ammonium nitrate 80   Patassium cyanide 1  
Ammonium thiocyanate 30   Potassium bromide 6.5  
Barium nitrate 1   Potassium chloride 0.2  
Beryllium nitrate (4H₂O) 10   Potassium hydroxide 0.13  
Bismuth trichloride 1   Potassium iodide 20 20
Boric acid 45   Potassium nitrate 12  
Bromine Reacts   Potassium nitrite 2  
Cadium iodide 30   Potassium perchlorate 38  
Cadmium chloride 20   Potassium thiocyanate 20 50
Calcium chloride Insoluble   Silver chloride <0.01  
Calcium dichromate (3H₂O) 50   Silver iodide <0.01  
Calcium nitrate (4H₂O) 30   Silver nitrate 130 180
Ceric ammonium nitrate 1   Sodium azide <1.0 2
Cobaltous chloride (6H₂O) 30 Misc. m.p. Sodium chloride 0.4  
Cupric acetate (H₂O) Insoluble 6 Sodium cyanide 1 10
Cupric Bromide 1 20@150°C Sodium dichromate (2H₂o) 12  
Cupric chloride (2H₂O) Insoluble 27 Sodium hydroxide 0.035  
Cupric sulfate (5H₂O) <0.01   Sodium iodide 30  
Cuprous iodide 1@30°C   Sodium nitrate 20  
Ferric ammonimum sulfate Insoluble Misc. m.p. Sodium nitrite 20  
Ferric chloride (6H₂O) 30 90 Sodium perchlorate 24.2  
Ferrous chloride (4H₂O) 30 90 Sodium sulfate <0.01  
Gold chloride 5   Sodium thiocyanate 1  
Iodine >100   Stannic chloride 25  
Lead chloride 10   Stannous chloride (2H₂O) 40  
Lead nitrate 20 60 Strontium bromide (6H₂O) 5  
Lithium bromide 31.4   Strontium chloride (2H₂O) 10  
Lithium chloride 10.2   Sulfur dichloride Reacts violently  
Lithium dichromate (2H₂O) 10   Sulfur monochloride Reacts violently  
Lithium iodide 41.1   Tungsten hexachloride 5  
Lithium nitrate 10   Uranyl nitrate (6H₂O) 30  
Lithium perchlorate 31.5   Vanadium chloride   1
Magnesium chloride (6H₂O) 1   Zinc acetate >100  
Magnesium nitrate (6H₂O) 40   Zinc chloride 30  
Manganous chloride (4H₂O) 20   Zinc nitrate (6H₂O) 55  
Mercuric acetate 100   Zinc sulfate <0.01  

Table 5

Solubility of Gases in DMSO (@Atmospheric Pressure, 20°C)

Material Grams Gas / 100 Grams Solution Grams Volume / Volume of DMSO
Acetylene 2.99 28.1
Ammonia 2.6 40
Butadiene 4.35 31
Butane   4.8
Butylenes (mixed) 2.05  
Carbon dioxide 0.05 2.9
Carbon monoxide <0.01  
Ethane 6.85 x 10⁻² 0.6
Ethylene 0.32 2.8
Ethylene oxide 60 306
Freon 12 1.8 3.7
Helium 1.46 x 10⁻⁴ 0.89 x 10⁻²
Hydrogen 1.95 x 10⁻⁴ 2.39 x 10⁻²
Hydrogen sulfide 0.5 (reacts)  
Isobutylene 2.5 – 3.0  
Methane 7.92 x 10⁻³  
Nitric oxide 0  
Nitrogen 2.99 x 10⁻³ 0.6
Nitrogen dioxide Miscible  
Oxygen 6.44 x 10⁻³ 0
Ozone Reacts  
Propane   1.8
Propyne   58.2
Sulfur dioxide 57.4 (Reacts)  

Table 6

Relative Hansen Solubility Parameter Data

Solvent δd δP δh δt
Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) 9 8 5 13
Butyrolactone 9.3 8.1 3.6 12.8
Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) 8.2 5.6 5 11.1
Dimethylformamide (DMF) 8.5 6.7 5.5 12.1
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) 8.8 6 3.5 11.2
Propylene Carbonate 9.8 8.8 2 13.3
Sulfolane 9 7.4 5.3 12.8

The units for solubility parameters in this table are (cal/cm²)½. SI units  (J/cm²)½ can be obtained by multiplying by 2.0455.

Table 7

Solubility of DMSO Formulations for Industrial Solvent

Current Solvent Theoretical Replacement Mixture
  δd δP δh Weight % δd δP δh
Acetone 7.6 5.1 3.4 65% DMSO 35% Aromatic 150 8.8 5 3.6
Butyl cellosolve 7.8 2.5 6 10% DMSO 30% Aromatic 150 60% Isopropyl alcohol 8 2.7 5.9
Butyrolactone 9.3 8.1 3.6 100% DMSO 9 8 5
Butrylactone 7.9 4.5 7 33% DMSO 67% Butyl alcohol 8.1 4.2 7
Cyclohexanone 8.7 3.1 2.5 40% DMSO 60% Aromatic 100 8.9 3.2 2.4
Dimethylacetamide 8.2 5.6 5 67% DMSO 33% Amyl acetate 8.6 5.3 5
Dimethylformamide 8.5 6.7 5.5 80% DMSO                                 20% 2-methyl butanol 8.6 6.6 5.4
Ethyl amyl ketone 8 2.5 2.1 30% DMSO 70% Aromatic 100 8.9 2.5 2
Ethylene glycol butyl ether acetate 8.1 2.8 6.7 20% DMSO 60% Butyl alcohol 20% Amyl acetate 8 3.3 6.6
Isophorone 8.1 4 3.6 50% DMSO 40% Aromatic 100 10% n-Butanol 8.9 4.1 3.5
Methyl ethyl ketone 7.8 4.4 2.5 20% DMSO 80% MIBK 7.8 3.8 2.5
Dimethylacetamide 8.2 5.6 5 67% DMSO 33% Amyl acetate 8.6 5.3 5
Dimethylacetamide 8.5 6.7 5.5 80% DMSO                                  20% 2-methyl butanol 8.6 6.6 5.4
Ethyl amyl ketone 8 2.5 2.1 30% DMSO 70% Aromatic 100 8.9 2.5 2
Ethylene glycol butyl ether   8.1 2.8 6.7 20% DMSO 60% Butyl alcohol 20% Amyl acetate 8 3.3 6.6
Isophorone 8.1 4 3.6 50% DMSO
40% Aromatic 100
10% n-Butanol
8.9 4.1 3.5
Methyl ethyl ketone 7.8 4.4 2.5 20% DMSO
80% MIBK
7.8 3.8 2.5
Methylene chloride 8.9 3.1 3 40% DMSO
60% Aromatic 150
8.7 3.1 2.7
Nitrobenzene 9.8 4.2 2 45% DMSO
55% Toluene
8.9 3.6 2.4
NMP 8.8 6 3.5 70% DMSO
30% Aromatic 100
8.9 5.4 3.6
Pentoxone 7.3 4.2 2.8 50% DMSO
50% Aromatic 100
8.9 3.9 2.8
Propylene carbonate 9.8 8.8 2 100% DMSO 9 8 5
Sulfolane 9 8.1 3.6 100% DMSO 9 8 5

Table 8

Hansen Solubility Parameter data for Selected Polymers

Polymer δd δP δh Radius
Cellulose acetate 9.1 6.2 5.4 3.7
Epoxy 10 5.9 5.6 6.2
Nitrocellulose 7.5 7.2 4.3 5.6
Poly (methylmethacrylate) 9.1 5.1 3.7 4.2
Polyester 10.5 7.3 6 8.2
Polystyrene 10.4 2.8 2.1 6.2
Polyvinyl acetate 10.2 5.5 4.7 6.7
Polyvinyl chloride 8.9 3.7 4.1 1.7

Tables 9 and 10 illustrate how the solvency of a mixture for selected polymers can be related to the composition of the mixture. Predicted solvencies of mixtures of DMSO and tetralin or DMSO and methyl isobutyl ketone for these eight polymers are tabulated. A solvency value of 100 was assigned to mixtures at the center of the HSP envelope and a value of 0 to mixtures at the envelope boundary. These tables also show how solvency changes with the composition of the mixture, with ratio of the solvents selected, and show the composition of maximum solvency for each polymer and solvent pair.

Table 9

Solubility of Selected Polymers in DMSO/Tetralin Mixtures

Polymer   Solvency Versus Mixture Composition
DMSO% 100 80 60 50 40 20 0
Tetralin % 0 20 40 50 60 80 100
Poly (methylmethacrylate)  42 87 99 93 80 35  
Epoxy  77 85 81   60 32  
Polystyrene  ns 35 70   87 91 84
Polyvinyl acetate  73 86 89 84 77 57 28
Nitrocellulose  67 65 65   4    
Cellulose acetate  74 89 61   0    
Polyester  85 83 74   57 35 5
Polyvinyl chloride  ns ns ns 68 ns ns ns

If Solvency <0, rating is “ns” indicting not soluble.

Table 10

Solubility of Selected Polymers in DMSO/MIBK Mixtures

Polymer   Solvency Versus Mixture Composition
DMSO% 100 80 60 40 20 0
MIBK % 0 20 40 60 80 100
Poly (methylmethacrylate)  42 77 84 67 38 0
Epoxy  77 73 58 38 9 ns
Polystyrene  ns 15 27 30 21 12
Polyvinyl acetate  73 72 64 43 28 6
Nitrocellulose  67 83 82 69 51 27
Cellulose acetate  74 81 54 0 ns ns
Polyester  85 74 58 39 16 ns
Polyvinyl chloride  ns ns ns ns ns ns

If Solvency <0, rating is “ns” indicting not soluble.

Table 11

Pharmaceutical Excipient Solubility Data

Excipient Brand Name Supplier Solubility Description
Butyl and other patch adhesives Duro-TAK®   practically insoluble/insoluble
Carnauba Wax Carnauba wax, No. 1 Aldrich practically insoluble/insoluble
Carrageenan NF Gelcarin® C-911 NF FMC practically insoluble/insoluble
Cetyl Alcohol NF Crodocol® C-95NF Croda practically insoluble/insoluble
Ethanol (absolute) Ethanol Aldrich very soluble
Ethylcellulose NF Ethocel® Standard Dow sparingly soluble
Hydroxypropyl cellulose Klucel® LF Ashland sparingly soluble
Hypromellose USP Methocel® E3 Dow sparingly soluble
Lactose B & D Lactose   freely soluble
Lanolin Medilan® Ultra Croda slightly soluble
Lecithin Lecithin,refined Alfa Aesar practically insoluble/insoluble
Light Mineral Oil NF Drakeol® 5 Penreco practically insoluble/insoluble
Mg Stearate NF Mg Stearate Ferro practically insoluble/insoluble
Mineral Oil USP Drakeol® 19 Penreco practically insoluble/insoluble
Oleic Acid Oleic acid Aldrich very soluble
PEG 300 NF Carbowax® Sentry® 300 Dow very soluble very slightly
PEG 50 Stearate Ritox® 53 Rita soluble practically
PEG 8000 NF Carbowax® Sentry® 300 Dow practically insoluble/insoluble
Poloxamer NF Lutrol® F127 NF BASF insoluble/insoluble
Poly (L-lactide) Resomer® L210 S Boehringer Ingelheim practically insoluble/insoluble
Poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) Resomer® RG502 H Boehringer Ingelheim freely soluble
Polymethacrylates Eudragit® E 100 Rohm Phrma practically insoluble/insoluble
Polyoxyl 35 Castor Oil NF Cremophor® EL BASF very soluble
Polysorbate 80 NF Tween® 80 Uniquema very soluble
Polyvinyl alcohol PVA, fully hydrolyzed JT Baker practically insoluble/insoluble
Povidone USP Kollidon® 90F and 17PF BASF freely soluble
Propylene Glycol USP Propylene Glycol Dow very soluble
Sorbitan Monopalmitate Span® 40 Uniquema insoluble
Soybean oil NF Super Refined®  Soybean Oil NF Croda practically insoluble/insoluble
Starch Pregelatinized NF Starch 1500 Colorcon practically insoluble/insoluble
Searic Acid Stearic acid, Grade I Aldrich sparingly soluble
Sucrose Sucrose Domino freely soluble
Water Water   very soluble
White Petrolatum USP Super White PET USP Penreco insoluble/insoluble
Descriptive Term  Parts of Solvent Required for 1 Part of Solute 
Very Soluble Less than 1
Freely Soluble From 1 to 10
Soluble From 10 to 30
Sparingly Soluble From 30 to 100
Slightly Soluble From 100 to 1,000
Very Slightly Soluble From 1,000 to 10,000
Practially Insoluble or Insoluble 10,000 or over

DMSO Gel Preparation Data

Pharmaceutically acceptable gelling agents suitable for the formulation of topical / transdermal DMSO products were evaluated to understand the effect of polymer loading on formulation viscosity. METHOCEL™ is a trademark of the Dow Chemical Company.

All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer, using spindle 61 at 100 rpm. Gels were measured at 73°F (23°C). The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm.

Methocel A4M: All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer using spindle 61 for measurements at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % polymer. Spindle 63 was used for the 2.0 % sample. Instrument settings of 100, 30, 6 and 100 RPM were used for samples containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt% polymer, respectively. Gels were measured at 73°F (23°C). The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm.

Methocel E4M: All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer, using spindle 61. Instrument settings of 100, 30, 12 and 5 RPM were used for samples containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt% polymer, respectively. Gels were measured at 73°F (23°C). The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm. Formulation included 1.0 wt% triethanolamine.

Other Dow rheology modifiers currently under evaluation include: Polyox® WSR N10 NF, Methocel E5 LV, Ethocel® Standard 4 NF and Ethocel Standard 10

Pharmaceutically acceptable gelling agents suitable for the formulation of topical / transdermal DMSO products were evaluated to understand the effect of polymer loading on formulation viscosity. Klucel® is a trademark of Ashland. Carbopol® is a trademark of Lubrizol.

Klucel HF: All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer, using spindle 61 for measurements at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % polymer. Spindle 64 was used for the 2.0 % sample. Instrument settings of 60, 2.5, 0.6 and 20 RPM were used for samples containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt% polymer, respectively. Gels were measured at 73°F (23°C). The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm

Other Ashland rheology modifiers currently under evaluation include: Klucel™ GF, HFX, LF, MF, EF, JF.

Carbopol 941 NF : All viscosity measurements were recorded using a Brookfield Model DV-E Digital Viscometer. using spindle 64 for measurements at 1.5 % and 2.0% polymer. Spindle 61 was used for the 0.5 % sample and spindle 62 for the 1.0% sample. Instrument settings of 30, 1.0, 100 and 0.3 RPM were used for samples containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt% polymer, respectively. Gels were measured at 73°F (23°C). The diameter of the measurement vessel was 8 cm.

Other Noveon rheology modifiers currently under evaluation include: Carbopol 940 NF, 934 NF, 980 NF, 934 NF, 981 NF, 1342 NF, 71G NF, 974 NF, Ultrez 10 NF, 971P NF

General procedure for preparing DMSO-based gel products. DMSO-based gels are prepared using methods similar to those described by manufacturers for water-based media. The additive is sifted with stirring into DMSO and allowed to disperse over 30-60 minutes. Warming the mixture at 50°C is helpful in dispersing the additive, and pH adjustment using suitable bases is often useful. In the case that less polar cosolvents are included, it may be best to form a pregel in DMSO, followed by slow addition of the less polar cosolvent. Recommended packaging materials for storage include HDPE, HDPP, or Teflon® PTFE.

The information in this bulletin is based on information available to us and on our observations and experiences. However, no warranty is expressed or implied regarding the accuracy of this data, the results to be obtained from the use thereof, or that any use will not infringe any patent. Each user must establish appropriate procedures for off-loading, handling, and use of the product(s). Since conditions for use are beyond our control, we will make no guarantee of results, and assume no liability for damages incurred by off-loading, handling, or use of the product(s). Nothing herein constitutes permission, or recommendation to practice any invention covered by any patent without license from the owner of the patent.


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